A detailed understanding of the nature and concentration of deprivation in a local area is vital to needs assessment. Deprivation is a fundamental driver of need and can highlight inequalities on both a geographic and population group basis.
What are the big issues?
Indices of Multiple Deprivation
The 2015 Indices of Deprivation show that, in overall terms, Warwickshire is not particularly deprived. At a County level, the Indices show that Warwickshire is ranked 124th out of 152 upper tier authorities in England meaning that it is amongst the 20% least deprived areas in England according to the IMD rank of average score. However, there is considerable variation across the Districts and Boroughs, and at a more localised level, various distinct pockets of severe deprivation exist within the County.
Nuneaton & Bedworth Borough has the highest levels of deprivation in the County, indicated by the highest average LSOA score. The Borough ranks as the 111th most deprived Local Authority District (out of the 326 Local Authorities in England). Stratford-on-Avon District is the least deprived Local Authority District in Warwickshire with a national rank of 272nd.
There are eight LSOAs in Warwickshire ranked within the top 10% most deprived LSOAs nationally on the overall IMD 2015. Six of these eight are located within Nuneaton & Bedworth Borough, one within Warwick District and the other within North Warwickshire Borough. This compares with nine LSOAs ranked within the top 10% most deprived LSOAs in the IMD 2010, all of which were located within Nuneaton & Bedworth Borough.
|Super Output Area||District||IMD 2015Rank- Top 10% Most Deprived Nationally|
|Mancetter South & Ridge Lane||North Warks||3,225|
|Camp Hill Village & West||Nun & Bed||1,485|
|Abbey Town Centre||Nun & Bed||2,253|
|Bar Pool North & Crescents||Nun & Bed||466|
|Kingswood Grove Farm & Rural||Nun & Bed||1,636|
|Middlemarch & Swimming Pool||Nun & Bed||2,257|
|Hill Top||Nun & Bed||3,122|
Although Warwickshire has low overall levels of child poverty, localised pockets with relatively high levels do exist, particularly in Nuneaton, and to a lesser extent in Rugby and Bedworth. There are also dispersed rural pockets both in the rural south and north.
Fuel poverty levels have risen across Warwickshire with the highest pockets of need located in rural areas within Stratford-on-Avon District and North Warwickshire Borough. Rising fuel prices and continued pressures on incomes are seen as the main reasons why levels of fuel poverty have increased.
Priority Families are families containing children & young adults, who are experiencing at least two of six problems, set out in the Priority Families Programme. A third of all Priority Families in Warwickshire reside in Nuneaton & Bedworth Borough (33%). This proportion is three times the proportion seen in Stratford-on-Avon District (11%). The aim of the Priority Families Programme is to ensure that families get the support they need, at the right time, in a way that enables them to achieve greater independence and stability. The programme focuses on enabling the earliest possible intervention, preventing vulnerable families and individuals within them from developing complex needs, which can become expensive to address.
A child is considered to live in poverty if they live in a household with an income below 60% of the UK’s median income. Although Warwickshire has low overall levels of child poverty, localised pockets with relatively high levels do exist, particularly in Nuneaton, and to a lesser extent in Rugby and Bedworth. There are also dispersed rural pockets both in the rural south and north.
Proportion of child in Low-Income Families
The proportion of children (all dependent children under the age of 20) living in low-income families is a measure based on the number of children living in families in receipt of Child Tax Credits whose reported income is less than 60 per cent of the median income or in receipt of Income Support or (Income-Based) Jobs Seekers Allowance, divided by the total number of children in the area (determined by Child Benefit data).
Overall, Warwickshire has a lower proportion of children living in low-income families when compared to both regional and national equivalent figures. This figure steadily declined between 2010 and 2013, in line with national, but not regional trends. When looking at district and borough level data, we can see there is split between the north and south of the County, with the north home to a larger proportion of children living in low-income families. Nuneaton & Bedworth Borough has the largest concentration of children living in low-income families in the County (18.2%), whilst Stratford-on-Avon District has the smallest concentration (8%). This data highlights the importance of looking at data at a lower spatial level (district/borough). When looking only at the Warwickshire average, compared to national and regional trends, we can miss important information about the local communities within Warwickshire. Also, data at this level can mask inequalities in the County.
Proportion of children living in all out of work benefit claimants households
This measure looks at the proportion of children living in all out of work benefit claimants households (2014 data). The term ‘out-of-work benefit households’, refers to households where at least one parent or guardian is claiming an out-of-work benefit. Out-of-work benefits include Jobseeker’s Allowance, Income Support, Employment and Support Allowance, Incapacity Benefit, Severe Disability Allowance and Pension Credit. Universal Credit is not included.
National, regional and county figures all show a decrease in the proportion of children living in all out of work benefit claimant households between 2010 and 2015. Whilst Warwickshire (9.8%) has a smaller proportion of children living in these types of household, when compared to national (14.0%) and regional (16.8%) figures, the overall figure for Warwickshire masks large differences which can be seen at district and borough level. Moreover, between 2010 and 2015, Warwickshire saw a smaller reduction in the proportion children living in all out of work benefit claimant households (-3.5% points) when compared to the equivalent figures for both the West Midlands (-4.8% points) and England (-5.0% points). The south of the county is home to a much smaller proportion of children living in these households than the north. In Nuneaton & Bedworth borough 15.7% of children aged 18 and under were identified as living in out of work benefit claimant households (2014), conversely, the equivalent figure for Stratford-on-Avon is 6.2%, representing a 9.5% point difference between the two.
Nationally, The Child Poverty Act came into force in 2010 with the aim of eradicating child poverty by the end of 2020. In the summer of 2014, the Government revised its approach to tackling child poverty over the next three years by seeking to focus on: 1) Supporting families into work and increasing earnings, 2) Improving living standards and 3) Educational attainment. The underlying principle of the Strategy is to ‘address poverty now and break the cycle of intergenerational poverty’. Recently the Warwickshire Child Poverty Strategy has been refreshed, though the central aim of the strategy remains to eradicate child poverty by 2020. The strategy recognising that it is as important to tackle underlying causes of child poverty, as well as dealing with the consequences.
A comprehensive Child Poverty Needs Assessment in Warwickshire was produced in 2010.
More information on the Indices of Multiple Deprivation can be found here.